Hawaii Five-0 attracted wonderful guest stars, both those from the mainland and those we like to call our Beloved Semi-Regulars. They were the cream of the crop, the best of the best, and we looked forward to seeing them each time they appeared. Here are just a few of them:
Those from the Mainland
Did You Know?
Lew Ayres, who portrayed the governor in "Cocoon" (Pilot), was married
at one time to Ginger Rogers. She, of course, was Fred Astaire's dancing
partner in movies during the 1930s.
Ayres also appeared as Dr. Elias Haig in Anybody Can Build a Bomb
(Season 6), and as CDR Reginald Blackwell in Legacy of Terror (Season 8).
native of Ontario, Canada, and a member of a prominent political family there, Mr. Cronyn was married to the beloved actress, Jessica Tandy. The two often appeared together on stage and screen. He was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame, the Order of Canada, and Canada's Walk of Fame. He received medals of honor from the Canadian government and an honorary doctor of laws degree from the University of Western Ontario.
Mr. Cronyn's work on Hawaii Five-0 included two highly popular episodes, Over Fifty? Steal (Season 3) and Odd Man In (Season 4). He portrayed the same character, a thief who delighted in irritating McGarrett, Lewis Avery Filer, in both.
Khigh Dhiegh was born Kenneth Dickerson in 1910 in Spring Lake, New Jersey. Unlike other actors who replace their birth names with their professional names, Kenneth Dickerson kept his birth name throughout his life. His professional name rhymes with "why me."
Although he was of Anglo, Egyptian, and Sudanese ancestry, Khigh Dhiegh made a career of portraying Asians. He made his mark in the role of Dr. Yen Lo in The Manchurian Candidate (1962) and of Davalo in John Frankenheimer's Seconds (1966).
In 1967, Leonard Freeman tapped Khigh Dhiegh to portray Red Chinese agent Wo Fat in Hawaii Five-0. It was a semi-regular role, which Khigh Dhiegh played in fifteen episodes. With Jack Lord, he was the only actor to remain on the series from its pilot through its final episode. Khigh Dhiegh appeared in 15 episodes, beginning with “Cocoon” (Pilot) and ending with “Woe to Wo Fat” (Season 12)
Khigh Dhiegh also performed in The Man From U.N.C.L.E., The Wild, Wild West, Mission Impossible, and Kung Fu, among many others.
Kenneth Dickerson was a devout Taoist and founded the Taoist Sanctuary (now, Taoist Institute) in North Hollywood, California. He was the author of The Eleventh Wing and numerous other books on Taoism.
Dickerson passed away on October 25, 1991, in Mesa, Arizona. He was married and had two children.
Bill Edwards was born on September 14, 1918, in New Jersey. He had a love of horses and drew sketches of them from an early age, especially after his family moved to Wyoming. There, he learned to ride and, in adulthood, became a championship rodeo rider. In the 1930s, he gave up that rough life with its broken bones and moved to New York, where he became a model. An agent discovered him in 1940 and took him to Hollywood, where he went under contract to Paramount Pictures. In 1945, he married Hazel Allen to whom he would remain married until his death.
Edwards did not catch on as an actor. Many of his appearances were uncredited; still others were minor roles. Indeed, he is best known for his appearances on Five-0, where he appeared in 17, most often as McGarrett’s intelligence contact in Washington, Jonathan Kaye.
When Edwards was not acting, he was pursuing his love of art. He became a commercial illustrator, designing paperback book covers and paper dolls in the images of actresses. His paintings of Old West scenes gained national recognition, being accepted by the Air Force’s art program and the Smithsonian.
Bill Edwards passed away in Newport Beach, California, on December 21, 1999, at the age of 81. Cause of death was pneumonia. He is survived by his wife and a daughter.
Hailing from a family of prominent New York physicians, Mel Ferrer was the first husband of actress Audrey Hepburn. He became a published author at the age of 23, won a battle with polio, and was an actor, director, and producer, working with such big names as Howard Hughes. He appeared with Miss Hepburn in the epic War and Peace. His work on Hawaii Five-0 includes Father Neill in The Bells Toll at Noon (Season 9) and the villain, Emil Raddick, in To Kill a Mind (Season 9).
Best known to us as James "Danno" MacArthur's mom, Miss Hayes was known as The First Lady of American Theater. She made her stage debut at the age of five at the Belasco Theatre in Washington, DC, as a singer. In her only appearance on Hawaii Five-0, her character said she had appeared with the (fictitious) prominent actor, David Belasco. Her character in Retire to Sunny Hawaii...Forever (Season 8), Aunt Clara Williams, seemed to be almost a reprisal of her character, stowaway passenger Ada Quonsett, in the movie Airport (1970), although some sources say she was actually playing her role, Ernesta Snoop, from The Snoop Sisters on television. Miss Hayes won an Academy Award for her appearance in Airport and was nominated for an Emmy Award for her appearance on Hawaii Five-0. She is one of only fifteen actors to win awards for her performances on stage, in movies, and on television.
Although Miss Heckart was known primarily as a character actress on both stage and the small screen, she carried starring roles well. She portrayed Eleanor Roosevelt in the television mini-series Back Stairs at the White House. Indeed, she portrayed grand dame Agatha Henderson extraordinarily well in the Hawaii Five-0 episode Honor is an Unmarked Grave (Season 8). Whether she was answering McGarrett's questions through a barrier of orchids or quietly informing her lawyer that she believed she would be the defendant in her upcoming murder trial, she remained completely in control of her emotions. She appeared with Pat Hingle, another Five-0 veteran, in the William Inge / Elia Kazan production of The Dark at the Top of the Stairs on Broadway.
Mr. Hingle appeared in three episodes of Hawaii Five-0, all as the same character, the egoistical physicist, Dr. Grant Ormsbee. If he and Jack squabbled as brothers Gooper and Brick Pollitt in the Broadway production of Tennessee Williams' Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, they really outdid themselves in The Defector (Season 8), Man on Fire (Season 9), and To Kill a Mind (Season 9). Mr. Hingle is best remembered to younger viewers as Commissioner Gordon in the Batman movies. He is known to fans of Hang 'Em High (written by our own Leonard Freeman) as The Hanging Judge and to World War II historians as the man who portrayed ADM William F. "Bull" Halsey in the television mini-series War and Remembrance.
Miss Natwick was, primarily, a stage actress, although she caught the attention of television viewers with her appearances as San Francisco Police Commissioner Stewart McMillan's (Rock Hudson) mother in McMillan & Wife, as Helen Hayes' partner in crime solving in The Snoop Sisters, and even as a little-old-lady Robin Hood in a Magnum PI episode, Limited Engagement. She appeared in two episodes of Hawaii Five-0, Frozen Assets (Season 10) and The Spirit is Willie (Season 11), portraying the same character, Millicent Shand, who surely must have inspired Murder She Wrote's Jessica Fletcher (Angela Lansbury). Let it not be forgotten that she portrayed Corie Banks Bratter's (Jane Fonda) mother in the film Barefoot in the Park and the spinster Miss Ivy Graveley in the Alfred Hitchcock thriller The Trouble With Harry.
Miss Nettleton was named Miss Chicago of 1948 and was a semi-finalist in that year’s Miss America Pageant. She served as Barbara Bel Geddes’ understudy in the role of Maggie the Cat in Tennessee Williams’ Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and, occasionally, played the part opposite Jack’s character, Brick Pollitt. She acted in another Tennessee Williams play, Period of Adjustment (1962), this time on film. Most of Lois Nettleton’s work was on television. She won an Emmy Award for her portrayal of a bereaved lesbian in an episode of The Golden Girls. Her only appearance on Hawaii Five-0 was in Sing a Song of Suspense (Season 8), in which she portrayed singer Chelsea Merriman, who was sponsored by a mobster who had killed a young woman whose only crime was her desire to be as successful as she was. The episode is highly popular with fans who would like to have seen McGarrett establish a relationship with Chelsea.
Mr. Ryder was married to Kim Stanley with whom Jack starred in the Broadway production of Horton Foote's The Traveling Lady. He studied under Lee Strasberg and was a lifelong member of the Actors Studio. He acted from the age of eight and made his first adult appearance in Thornton Wilder's Our Town (1938). During World War II, he served in the Army Air Forces. In his first film, Winged Victory (1944), he portrayed PFC Alfred Ryder. He served as understudy for Laurence Olivier in the Broadway production of The Entertainer (1958). He went on to serve as stage director on and off Broadway. He is best remembered as a character actor on television. We remember him as Harry Quon in the Five-0 episode The Late John Louisiana (Season 3).
And there are more!
Andrew Duggan, who portrayed President Dwight Eisenhower in the mini-series Back Stairs at the White House and in a biography, J. Edgar Hoover. He also portrayed President Lyndon Johnson in another biography, The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover.
Albert Paulsen, who won an Emmy Award in 1964 for the Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre presentation One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich based on an historical novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
Elliott Street. Besides his outstanding work as an actor, he was an instructor of theater and speech at the Meridian (Mississippi) Community College and served as executive director of the Grand Opera House Revitalization Project in Meridian.
Harold Gould, who studied at Cornell and the Neighborhood Playhouse and taught drama at Randolph-Macon Women's College (now Randolph College) in Virginia and at the University of California.
Manu Tupou, who graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and the Actors Studio and helped to develop the New Era Acting Technique, a simper acting style than the traditional method acting.
Milton Selzer, who studied at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and The New School before becoming a Shakespearean actor. Turning to films, he appeared in such classics as Marnie, Raise the Titanic, and Capricorn One. He is said to have been the most prolific television actor on record.
Simon Oakland, who began his career as a concert violinist before becoming a strong and talented actor on stage, in films, and on television.
Soon Tek Oh, who studied at UCLA and the Neighborhood Playhouse, became a prolific actor, and worked to improve the image of Asian-Americans in the acting profession, establishing several theater companies to their benefit.
Jean Simmons, who began acting in her native England before moving to the United States and was named to the Order of the British Empire for her services to acting.
Our Beloved Semi-Regulars
One of my heroes was Herman Wedemeyer. He went to St. Louis, I went to St. Louis. And he was a great, great football player. And I tried to emulate his moves. …he was in the twelfth grade when I was in the first grade. But he was like one of my, wow, my heroes. I would go to every football game that St. Louis played. And I would watch him, and watch the way he ran, and the way he juked, and all this, and I learned from that.
~ Jimmy Borges
* Wilcox, Leslie. “Jimmy Borges: The First Verse” in Long Story Short.
PBS: Hawaii. February 21 [year not given].
* Photograph provided by Jimmy Borges
Jimmy Borges was born in the Kalihi neighborhood of Honolulu on June 1, 1935. He graduated from St. Louis High School in Honolulu and attended college in San Francisco on a football scholarship. While in college, he sang in college rallies with such singers as Johnny Mathis.
He left college to sing and learned the ropes by singing in places like Las Vegas, Nevada; New York City; Miami, Florida; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Auckland, Australia; and Tokyo, Japan. Having paid his dues, he returned to Hawaii to perform.
Jimmy was singing at a jazz spot called Keone’s in Waikiki when Jack Lord stopped by. He liked Jimmy’s extemporaneous connection with his audience and invited him to read for a part on Hawaii Five-0. Long story short, Jimmy appeared in 15 episodes.
He went on to appear in Magnum P.I., Charlie’s Angels, and other shows and movies-of-the-week that filmed in Hawai‘i. Now, he has appeared in the H50 remake, as well.
Jimmy continued to perform in jazz concerts and lectures at universities concerning his career and his battle with liver cancer that he battled for several years before his death on May 30, 2016. He was married to Vicky Bergeron and had a daughter, Steffanie Borges Juergensen.
Born Joseph Brice Moore, Jr., Joe is the son of an Air Force officer. He grew up in Honolulu and attended Aiea High School. His father’s transfer to Ohio resulted in his graduating from high school there. He went on to study communications and history at the University of Maryland. He dropped out in 1967 and served two tours of duty in Vietnam as an Army journalist and newscaster.
Moore has been a familiar face on television since 1969, when he settled in Hawai‘i. He became a sportscaster for CBS-TV affiliate KGMB in 1969. His mentor was news director Bob Sevey, a popular Five-0 face.
In 1972, Joe made his first of eleven appearances on Five-0 in "Skinhead" (Season 4). He considers his best work to have been done in "Sign of the Ram" (Season 12), "Dealer's Choice...Blackmail" (Season 9), "You Don't See Many Pirates These Days" (Season 10), and "The Case Against Philip Christie" (Season 11). Other episodes include "Murder With a Golden Touch" ( Season 6), "Bones of Contention" (Season 7), "Turkey Shoot at Makapuu" (Season 8), and "Deep Cover" (Season 10). In 1979, Jack Lord offered him a regular role on Five-0 as Danno’s replacement; however, he turned it down in favor of his sportscasting career. Jack's note on the photograph, above, references that ("You could have been a champion.") In 1978, Joe moved to NBC-TV (later FOX) affiliate KHON, where he serves as a newscaster to this day.
Moore starred in two independent films, Goodbye Paradise and Moonglow, and guest-starred in several television series set in Hawai‘i, including the original Hawaii Five-0; Magnum, PI; Tour of Duty; Jake and the Fatman; and One West Waikiki. Moore’s stage work includes four productions with Pat Sajak (Wheel of Fortune): The Odd Couple, The Honeymooners, The Boys in Autumn, and Dial M for Murder. Notably, he has written and starred in plays on a number of stages in Hawai‘i. Read about them via the links, below. He is known for producing stage plays to benefit the Hawai'i Theatre.
He is married to Teresa and has a son, Bryce.
Read more about Joe Moore's experiences on Five-0 in "KHON's Joe Moore Declined chance to be a 'Five-0' Star", which appeared in the Honolulu Star-Advertiser on February 10, 2012.
Joe Moore. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0601374/
Joe Moore - Anchor. http://www.khon2.com/content/bios/story/JOE-MOORE-
Joe Moore (television journalist).
Mahalo nui loa to Joe Moore for contributing to this article and to MofH50/RJL member, EricW, for suggesting and contributing to this article.
David "Lippy" Espinda
Lippy Espinda, who was born on November 2, 1913, was known as the “King of Pidgin” and the originator of the “shaka” sign and the greeting “Shaka, Brah.” He owned a gas station and used-car lot but was best known as the emcee of “Lippy’s Lanai Theater,” as a benefit auctioneer, and as a banquet speaker.
We know Lippy best as the taxi driver in “The Guarnerius Caper” (Season 3) and as the informer who called dollar bills “crispies” in “‘V’ for Vashon: The Patriarch.” In all, Lippy Espinda appeared in eleven episodes of Five-0 between 1970 and 1975. His last appearance was as pawn shop owner Kaneho in “The Waterfront Steal” (Season 8), filmed shortly before his death.
In addition, Espinda performed as Hanalei in three episodes of The Brady Bunch (1972), as a workman in Inferno in Paradise (1974), and as Chief in He Is My Brother (1975).
David “Lippy” Espinda died on June 7, 1975, at the age of 61.
Lippy Espinda. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0260917
“Whatever Happened…’King of pidgin’ Lippy died in 1975” in Honolulu Star-Bulletin.http://archives.starbulletin.com/96/11/27/news/whatever.html
Born on October 28, 1901, in Honolulu as Clarissa “Clara” Haili, Hilo Hattie was a vivacious personality, who loved to sing, dance, and perform naughty and comedic hulas. She began to establish her trademark movements as a child, when she danced the hula despite her mother’s objections and sang in the church choir.
Even while a teacher at Waipahu Elementary School, Clara began performing at the Royal Hawaiian Hotel and the Waialae Country Club. She made her mark at a teacher’s convention in Portland, Oregon, when she performed Don McDiarmid’s song, When Hilo Hattie Does the Hilo Hop. Her interpretation shocked the composer, who conducted the Royal Hawaiian Hotel orchestra. When his dancer fell ill, Clara was chosen to perform her adaptation. The audience loved her, prompting her to begin using the name “Hilo Hattie.” She took the name legally when she performed in the movie Song of the Islands (1941).
In the late-1930s until well into the 1950s, Hilo Hattie performed all across the mainland in Hawaiian-themed nightclubs, which were popular at the time. She was in California when World War II broke out and performed for departing sailors in San Francisco. She went on to perform for the Red Cross, the USO, and troop hospitals, spending half of each year on the mainland.
Clara also performed on Honolulu radio station KPOA, on the (Harry) Owens/Hilo Hattie Show and went on to perform on Owens’ television program and other televised variety shows. She also performed at the Tapa Room in the Hilton Hawaiian Village, at Canoes at the Ilikai, the Kahala Hilton, the Royal Hawaiian, and the Moana Surfrider.
Hilo Hattie appeared in two episodes of Hawaii Five-0: as Tommy Kapali’s mother in “Strangers in Our Own Land” (Season 1) and as next-door neighbor, Mrs. Pruitt, in “The Late John Louisiana” (Season 3).
In 1971, at the Merrie Monarch festival in Hilo, Clara was approached by Evelyn and Richard Margolis, who wanted to design and sell Hawaiian clothing under the name of Hilo Hattie. She thus lent her name to the shop of aloha attire and souvenirs. A hybrid orchid was named for her. She was awarded the Hawai`i Aloha Award and honored with a benefit by the March of Dimes. The State of Hawai`i honored her, as well.
Clara and her (second) husband, Carlyle Nelson, retired to their home in Kaaawa. She passed away on December 12, 1979.
Alan Naluai appeared in five episodes between 1968 and 1977. Here is a link to his filmography. He also appeared in McCloud and The Hawaiians.
Naluai is best remembered as a member of the musical group, The Surfers, with whom he played for more than 20 years. Advertiser columnist Wayne Harada wrote that Naluai’s “onstage hilarity…often belied his vocal prowess.” Even when he was playing heavies on Five-0, there was a hint of comedy in his facial expressions.
In addition to performing with The Surfers, Naluai wrote music; he was completing an album of his compositions at the time of his death. He also sold real estate.
Naluai died of a heart attack on March 10, 2001, at the age of 62. He is survived by his wife, their six children and eleven grandchildren, as well as a large and warm extended family.
Alan Naluai. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0619612/
Harada, Wayne. “Alan Naluai of the Surfers Dead at 62” in Honolulu Advertiser.http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/2001/Mar/14/314localnews27.html
Robert W. (Bob) Sevey, news anchor and news director at television station KGMB in Honolulu, passed away in Olympia, Washington, on February 20, 2009. He was 81 years old. Sevey will be remembered by most of us for his appearances in nine episodes of Hawaii Five-0, in some of which he portrayed himself.
Sevey was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on December 16, 1927. Rather than work his way up to television journalism through the print media, he began his career in radio and advertising in Phoenix, Arizona. He joined the KGMB news team in 1954 and became known as “The Walter Cronkite of the Pacific.” He earned that title with his professional, highly respected delivery of the news.
Many journalists and communications specialists in Hawai`i today learned their craft from Sevey. One of his protégés is now a judge, while another heads communications for Hawai`i Public Television. All honored him at a reunion dinner he attended with them in Kailua, O`ahu, in September 2008. His critics faulted him for being “old school,” preferring to hire male anchors than female ones. When a mainland firm bought out the station and demanded that he make the changes that news teams were making to their programs and delivery in 1986, Sevey decided he had had enough and left KGMB and newscasting.
He helped Cecil Landau Heftel, former KGMB owner, in his unsuccessful for governor in 1986 and made advertisements on behalf of Hawai`i Airlines. In 1989, he left Hawai`i and moved to Washington state. Sevey was succeeded by his wife, Rosalie, and two sons.
Les Keiter was born on April 27, 1919, in Seattle, Washington, and attended the University of Washington. He married Lila Hamerslough Keiter. The couple had five children and eight grandchildren. While still newlyweds, Les and Lila Keiter moved to Hawai‘i, where Les did baseball recreations.
In the 1950s, Les moved to the mainland, where he served as sportscaster at several television stations during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968, he announced Olympics coverage in Mexico City for Mutual Radio. He returned to Hawai‘i and began announcing the sports at KHON in the late-1960s.
Les appeared in 9 episodes (one source says 14 episodes) of H50. He was given the nickname “The General” by Joe Moore after he portrayed generals in multiple episodes of Five-0. He became a personal friend of Jack Lord.
Les Keiter’s autobiography, "Fifty Years Behind the Microphone," was formally added to the Special Collection at the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York, on June 6, 1998.
After retiring from sportscasting, he served as the media relations coordinator for the Aloha Stadium. He was a member of the Honolulu Quarterback Club. He also was inducted into the Hawaii Sports Hall of Fame and the Big 5 Hall of Fame.
Les Keiter died on April 14, 2009, at the age of 89, in Kailua, O'ahu.
Morgan White portrayed Attorney General Walter Stewart in six episodes during Season 1. He was a prosecuting attorney in the Navy, while Steve McGarrett was a naval intelligence officer. It was Stewart who suggested that Governor Paul Jameson hire Steve McGarrett to head Five-0.
White, who began his career as a rock-and-roll disc jockey in Denver, was affiliated with KGMB (CBS) television and radio. For many years, he portrayed Pogo Poge on the children's program, Checkers & Pogo, winning his way into the hearts of many island children.
White passed away September 3, 2010, at his home in Utah. He was 86 years old.
Read more about Morgan White:
Nephi Hanneman, the tall, strapping brother of Honolulu Mayor Mufi Hannemann, graduated from Farrington High School in Kalihi, O`ahu. He was playing football for UH when he took a dare to sing at a Don Ho show. That led to his packing hotels and nightclubs in Waikiki, singing to tourists as “Mr. Polynesian Man.” He and his friend Lani Kai were putting together an album when Kai died.
He was first seen on Five-0 as AWOL sailor John Mala in “Run, Johnny. Run” (Season 2). Similarly, in “Is This Any Way to Run a Paradise?” (Season 4), he acted in the name of the Hawaiian god Kahili break the law in protest against ecological wrongs. In all, he appeared in eleven episodes between 1969 and 1979. Besides Five-0, Hannemann appeared in McCloud, Barnaby Jones, Disneyland, and One West Waikiki television series. In One West Waikiki, he moved to the other side of the law, portraying a detective.
Hannemann also joined two partners to create the Maui Quarterly and served as the advertising director and main writer of the business and travel magazine. He was a spokesman for The Polynesian Man healthcare products.
Nephi Hannemann passed away on March 31, 2018.
Gee, Pat. Whatever happened… Entertainer Hannemann a ‘believer in human race’ in Honolulu Star-Bulletin. January 19, 2002.
Nephi Hanneman http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0360383/
Remi Abellira was a child actor, who grew up on the Five-0 set. He began as Poto, who washed windshields and helped Five-0 identify the man who planted the dynamite in McGarrett’s car in “Blind Tiger” (Season 2). Although he went on to appear in other episodes, he will always be Poto in my eyes. I like Poto.
Of his years on Five-0, Remi wrote on KD McGarrett’s Petition Spot: New Hawaii Five-0, "I was very blessed to have had a personal relationship with Jack Lord, James MacArthur, [and] producers Lenny Freeman and Bill Finnegan, as well as all the cast members of Hawaii 5-0."
Born on August 13, 1957, Abellira appeared in eight episodes of Five-0. In addition, he appeared as the King Kamehameha Club’s “Moki” in six episodes of Magnum, PI and as a punk in an episode of Jake and the Fatman. My how times changed!
Remi Abellira’s notes to KD McGarrett’s New Hawaii Five-0.
Remi Abellira. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0008565/
Others for Whom No Biographical Information is Available:
Checkers and Pogo Show
The Checkers and Pogo Show was a children’s television show produced and aired by KGMB-TV in Honolulu. It ran from 1967 until 1982 during after-school hours. Five of its characters appeared on Hawaii Five-0, including the following:
-- Checkers #2 – Jim Demerest, who appeared in seven episodes, perhaps most notably as Fred Babbitt, who bragged about owning a koi pond in “Pray Love Remember, Pray Love Remember” (Season 1).
-- Checkers #3 – Dave Donnelly, who appeared in four episodes.
-- Pogo – Morgan White, who appeared in six episodes in Season 1 as the Attorney General.
-- Professor Fun – Fred Ball, who appeared in eight episodes.
-- Super Spy McPig – Jerry Cox, who appeared in four episodes.
Watch an episode of Checkers and Pogo:
Let those who were there – both on screen and in front of the TV set – tell you about Checkers and Pogo: